135 Each paragraph number is linked to the corresponding paragraph of the Latin text, which will open in another window. A board of ten men who had charge of the Sibylline Books. But we also detected some illicit pipes within the City. Should any one pollute them, his fine shall be ten thousand sestertii. The remaining 1,472 quinariae were distributed inside the City through the first, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and fourteenth wards, among fifty-one reservoirs. 146 B.C., but Galba and Cotta were consuls in 144 B.C. New Anio and Claudia are carried together from their catch-basins on lofty arches, Anio being above.53 Their arches end behind the Gardens of Pallas, and from that point their waters are distributed in pipes to serve the City. The water comes from two very large and beautiful springs, the Caerulean,45 so designated from its appearance, and the Curtian. Augustus also determined by an edict what rights those should possess who were enjoying the use of water according to Agrippa's records, thus making the entire supply dependent upon his own grants. We have found even Marcia, so charming in its brilliancy and coldness, serving baths, fullers, and even purposes too vile to mention. Now the digit, by common understanding, is 1⁄16 part of a foot;60 the inch 1⁄12 part. Claudia also receives the spring which is called Albudinus, which is of such excellence that, when Marcia, too, needs supplementing, this water answers the purpose so admirably that by its addition there is no change in Marcia's quality. Old Anio, this side the fourth milestone, passes under New Anio, which here shifts from the Latin to the Labican Way; it has its own catch-basin. 56 So on, by adding successive quarters of a digit to the diameter, as was said above, we get by gradual increases, a 7‑pipe (septenaria), an 8‑pipe (octonaria), and up to the 20‑pipe (vicenaria). These are (1) the difference between the amount of water found by actual measurement to exist, and the amount attributed to each In some cases, where the waters were received in catch-basins, or reservoirs (cf. 19), he computes separately the amounts lost before the water reached the basin, and that lost afterwards.  p335 how much each aqueduct brings to points outside the City, what proportion to each quarter within the City; how many public reservoirs there are, and from these how much is delivered to public works, how much to ornamental fountains4 (munera, as the more polite call them), how much to the water-basins; how much is granted in the name of Caesar; how much for private uses by the favour of the Emperor; what is the law with regard to the construction and maintenance of the aqueducts, what penalties enforce it, whether established by resolutions of the Senate or by edicts of the Emperors. In The Aqueducts of Rome (De Aquis urbis Romae), the patrician, provincial governor and three-time consul Frontinus summarizes the importance of water supplies to the growing capital as the Empire expanded. For I believe that there is no surer foundation for any business than this, and that it would be otherwise impossible to determine what ought to be done, what ought to be avoided; likewise that there is nothing so disgraceful for a decent man as to conduct an office delegated to him, according to the instructions These waters they formerly used to cut off immediately, in order that between times they might sell them either to the occupants of the land, or to outsiders even. The Sergian tribe was to vote first. As is obvious to every one, a single aqueduct must be taken at a time, for if several were cut off at once, the supply would prove inadequate for the City's needs. 85‑48 B.C. The measure of the capacity of Alsietina is not set down in the records, nor could it be accurately arrived at under present conditions, because [it receives] from Lake Alsietinus, and afterwards in the vicinity of Careiae from Sabatinus as much water as the water-men arrange for. A greater discrepancy is detected in case of the three remaining ajutages.  p433 on official business, the Senate had commanded the lictors to accompany them. Octavian was anxious that the people should be amused by shows and buildings of more than usual splendour, and Agrippa, in his loyalty to the Triumvir, descended from the rank which he had attained as a consular to serve in the inferior office of aedile.  p349  In the present booklet, De Aquaeductu Urbis Romae, Frontinus sets forth his duties, responsibilities and accomplishments during approximately one year in office as curator. FRONTINUS' "DE AQUAEDUCTU URBIS ROMAE." But before I mention the names quinaria, centenaria, and those of the other ajutages58 by which water is gauged, I deem it appropriate to state what is their origin, what their capacities, and what each name means; and, after setting forth the rule according to which their proportions and capacities are computed, to show in what way I discovered their discrepancies, and what course I pursued in correcting them. Frontinus is referring to the stretches of aqueducts that are neither buried nor raised above the ground on arches, but girdle hills. More important is the reversal of the order of the two books in H, where the first book follows the second (cf. 51 public structures 181 quinariae, to three ornamental fountains 67 quinariae, to twenty-eight basins 65 quinariae. The intake of Claudia is at the thirty-eighth milestone on the Sublacensian Way, on a cross-road, •less than three hundred paces to the left. 67 The quinaria was a measure not of volume but of capacity, i.e. as much water as would flow through a pipe one and a quarter digits in diameter, constantly discharging under pressure. (In the 1,750 quinariae were included the 162 given to Julia. De aquaeductu (English: On aqueducts) is a two-book official report given to the emperor Nerva or Trajan on the state of the aqueducts of Rome, and was written by Julius Sextus Frontinus at the end of the 1st century AD. In layman's language, Frontinus does seem to have seen that the amount of water delivered by a pipe depends on the pressure and how fast the water is moving (§§ 35, 73), but lacking the physics and math needed to come up with a solution, he just scooted by the question as best he could, making the common-sense assumption that the volume of water was proportional to the cross-section of the pipe. These two great reservoirs, so close together in the line of the Aqua Appia, seem to have been the Gemelli mentioned by Frontinus." 38 There are five whose head rises to every point in the City, but of these some are forced up with greater, others with lesser pressure. The MS. says nothing of deliveries to private persons. in front of the "The consuls, Quintus Aelius Tubero and Paulus Fabius Maximus, having made a report upon the necessity of determining in accordance with what law those persons, to whom water had been granted, should draw water inside and outside the City, and having inquired of the Senate what it would please to order upon the subject, it has been resolved that it is the sense of this body: That a grant of water, with the exception of those supplies which have been granted for the use of bathing establishments, or in the name of Augustus, shall remain in force as long as the same proprietors continue to hold the ground for which they received the grant of the water. I took pains to bring it under fixed rules, in order that it might be clear what were the places which fell under this tax. But those who had been lulled into confidence by long-standing neglect170 had to be brought back by gentle means to right conduct. 23 He also The difference between the areas of a square digit and a round digit whose diameter is equal to the side of the square digit is easily seen:Â. 116 Those who sought 19 It remains to speak of the maintenance of the conduits; but before I say anything about this, a little explanation should be given about the gangs of slaves established for this purpose. 75 If it slopes to one side, so that the water flows by, and if it is inclined with the current, that is, is less favorably placed for taking in water, it will receive the water slowly and in scant quantity. We have further to indicate what is the law with regard to conducting and safeguarding the waters, the first of which treats of the limitation of private parties to the measure of their grants, and the second has reference to the upkeep of the conduits themselves. They also lay out village and country roads over the aqueducts themselves. "The consuls, Quintus Aelius Tubero and Paulus Fabius Maximus, having made a report that the routes of the aqueducts coming to the city are being Later it flowed in the same channel with Julia. The aggregate of what is delivered above the reservoir or is received on arches is 3,295 quinariae, — more than is set down in the scheduled capacity by 1,133 quinariae, and less than given by the gaugings made at the intake by 1,395 quinariae. It is customary, however, in the district across the Tiber, in an emergency, whenever the bridges39 are undergoing repairs and the water supply is cut off from this side of the river, to draw from Alsietina to maintain the flow of the public fountains. (1) The measurements there taken showed its volume to be 1,206 quinariae, 165 Frequent rounds must be made of channels of the aqueducts outside the City, and with great care, to check up the granted quantities. It remains to account in detail for the supply delivered (which we found given collectively and in a lump sum, so to speak, — and even set down under false entries),108 and to do this according to the several aqueducts and to the several wards of the City. In On the Water-Rights of the City of Rome he documents his duties, responsibilities and accomplishments during his first year in office. 87 79 89 "The consul Titus Quinctius Crispinus duly put the question to the people, and the people duly passed a vote in the Forum, before the Rostra of the temple of the Deified Julius on the thirtieth day of June. They all conform to their computed and recorded capacities, barring these four which the water-men have altered. 58 The total which was lost between the intake and the settling-reservoir, amounted to 2,788 quinariae, which I should have suspected resulted from an error of measurement, had I not discovered where it was diverted.91, 67 He was a successful general under Domitian, commanding forces in Roman Britain, and on the Rhine and Danube frontiers. The meaning of this sentence is clear, though not the construction. - 18.11.2018 in Rom enthält insgesamt 33 Beiträge. Near the City, however, at the seventh mile-stone, on the land which now belongs to Cejonius Commodus, where Virgo has a greater velocity, I made a gauging, and it amounted to 2,504 quinariae, — 1,852 quinariae more than was set down in the records. The work presents a history and description of the water-supply of the city of Rome, including the laws relating to its use and maintenance.  p409 from certain aqueducts to supplement others and are set down twice in showing the distribution, figure only once in reckoning. 14 — Lanciani. Out of Julia there were flowed outside the City in the name of Caesar 85 quinariae, to private parties 121 quinariae. The 120‑pipe: 12 digits plus 4⁄12 plus 6⁄288 in diameter; 38 digits plus ½ plus 4⁄12 in circumference; it has a capacity of 97 quinariae plus ½ plus 3⁄12.  p359 idle Pyramids or the useless, though famous, works of the Greeks! 49 1 I did not find anything set down about the water granted to an estate belonging to a syndicate.  p439 deputy must call in the levellers and provide that the calix155 is stamped as conforming to the deeded quantity, and must study the size of the ajutages we have enumerated above,156 as well as have knowledge of their location,157 lest it rest with the caprice of the levellers to approve a calix of sometimes greater, or sometimes smaller, interior area,158 according as they interest themselves in the parties. The size and character of the ajutage, therefore, were important factors in the measurement of the water discharged. 88 But in case of the 100‑pipe and 120‑pipe, through which they72 regularly receive water, the pipes are not diminished but enlarged! the Gardens of Agrippa on the Campus Martius and emptying into the Tiber. This income of nearly 250,000 sestertii167 formerly lost through loose management, was turned in recent times into the coffers of Domitian; but with a due sense of right the Deified Nerva restored it to the people.  p405 in the blunders of those who carelessly computed each of these waters at the outset. 35 For then and then only can the overseer be held to his full responsibility, when he understands that none but stamped pipes must be set in place. The intake of Tepula is at the tenth milestone on the Latin Way, near a cross-road, two miles to the right as you proceed from Rome And in fact the supply has been almost doubled, and has been distributed with such careful allotment that wards which were previously supplied by only one aqueduct now receive the water of several. For those not particularly interested in the primary source but looking for detailed information, a sort of condensation of Frontinus (by the author's own admission), although with quite a bit of additional material, is also online: see the article Near Spes Vetus,14 on the edge of the Torquatian and Epaphroditian Gardens, there joins it a branch of Augusta, added by Augustus as a supplementary supply The text has been carefully proofread. Repairs to the channel itself should not be made in the summer time, in order not to stop the flow of water at a time when the demand for it is the greatest, but should be made in the spring or autumn, and with the greatest speed possible, and of course with all preparations made in advance, in order that the conduits may be out of commission as few days as possible.  p353  But Augusta remained, nevertheless, a reserve supply to Marcia, the understanding being that Augusta should run into Claudia only when the conduit of Marcia would not carry it. The conduit of New Anio measures •58,700 paces, of which •49,300 are in an underground channel, •9,400 paces above ground on masonry; of these, at various points in the upper reaches are •2,300 paces on substructures or arches; while nearer the City, beginning at the seventh milestone, are •609 paces on substructures, •6,491 paces on arches. These, since they were brought from points near the City, could not rise to such high elevations. 74 The 4,200 quinariae included the 163 given to Tepula. 15 We learn that June 9 was the day that it first began to flow in the City. 2  p403 the records of delivery most of this water is actually accounted for? 117a But this offers opportunity for thefts by the water-men; and how much care should be devoted to preventing these, may be seen from a paragraph of an ordinance, which I append: 111 36 For myself, when I go about to examine the aqueducts, my self-reliance and the authority given me by the sovereign will stand in place of the lictors. Esquiline Gate I believe that all Frontinus is saying here is that the office of water commissioner was statutorily placed on the same footing as those of the other parallel offices: during their quarter's tenure, they were to work exclusively on their water duties. Claudia, flowing more abundantly than the others, is especially exposed to depredation. The intake of Marcia is at the thirty-sixth milestone on the Valerian Way, on a cross-road, three miles to the right as you come from Rome. To some pipes no ajutages were even attached. Old Anio was received into a catch-basin.  p423 stop drawing directly from the river and to take from the lake lying above the Sublacensian Villa of Nero, at the point where the Anio is the clearest; for inasmuch as the source of Anio is above Treba Augusta, it reaches this lake in a very cold and clear condition, be it because it runs between rocky hills and because there is but little cultivated land even around that hamlet, or because it drops its sediment in the deep lakes into which it is taken, being shaded also by the dense woods that surround it. What more would not be done, were all those things not prevented by a carefully drawn law, and were not the transgressors threatened with a serious penalty? The several aqueducts reach the City at different elevations. Frontinus had been appointed Water Commissioner by the emperor Nerva in AD 96. Consequently, when the intake was at a considerable elevation, long detours became necessary in bringing the water to the City.  p355 consulate of Marcus Aquila Julianus and Publius Nonius Asprenas, in the year 79141 after the founding of the City, began two others, inasmuch as the seven then existing seemed insufficient to meet both the public needs and the luxurious private demands of the day. Poleni would insert a general statement, deriving his total from the addition of the separate amounts. Take for example the Caelian and Aventine hills, to which Claudia alone used to run on the arches of Nero. From the allusions in 85 138. Its volume is augmented by several tributaries. If any enclosure has been made or shall be made near the channels, conduits, arches, pipes, tubes, reservoirs, or basins of the public waters, which now are or in future shall be conducted into the City of Rome, no one shall, after the passage of this law, put in the way, construct, enclose, plant, establish, set up, place, plough, sow anything, or admit anything in that space unless for the purpose of doing those things and making those repairs which shall be lawful and obligatory under this law. Of these there were furnished in the name of Caesar 116 quinariae, to private parties 543 quinariae, for public uses 439114 quinariae, — namely, to four camps 42½ quinariae, to fifteen public structures 41 quinariae, to twelve ornamental fountains 104 quinariae, to one hundred and thirteen water-basins 256 quinariae.115. 10 The Censors, Gnaeus Servilius Caepio and Lucius Cassius Longinus, called Ravilla, in the year 62728 after the founding of the City, in the consulate of Marcus Plautus Hypsaeus and Marcus Fulvius Flaccus,29 had the water called Tepula brought to Rome and to the Capitol, from the estate of Lucullus, which some persons hold to belong to Tusculan30 territory. "Note on Water Measurements by Frontinus". The circular digit is 1 digit in diameter; its capacity is 7⁄12 plus ½ twelfth plus 1⁄72 of a quinaria.65, 27 We have found irrigated fields, shops, garrets even, and lastly all disorderly houses fitted up with fixtures through which a constant supply of flowing water might be assured. 50 and is distributed to high-lying mains throughout the City. Its source is beyond the springs of Marcia; its conduit, up to its junction with Marcia, measures •800 paces. — Herschel. 108 The topmost of these three is Julia; next below is Tepula; then Marcia.51 These flowing [under ground] reach the level of the Viminal Hill, and in fact even of the Viminal Gate. This gate was on the south side of the City, in the old Servian Wall. 39 Outside the City, Claudia and New Anio delivered each from its own channel; inside the City they were mixed together. Frontinus's fractions and the symbols which represent them are as follows. Poleni endeavoured to reconcile these figures, so as to make them mathematically correct. 38 Claudia's conduit has a length of •46,606 paces, of The 12‑pipe: 3 digits in diameter; 9 digits plus 5⁄12 plus 3⁄288 in circumference; it has a capacity of 5 quinariae plus ½ plus 3⁄12 plus 3⁄288; is not in use. For only so will any special computation accord with general principles. 62 See Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, VIII.6.4 (c. 50 B.C.). This was based neither on the inch, nor on either of the digits, but was introduced, as some think, by Agrippa, or, as others believe, by plumbers at the instance of Vitruvius, the architect. 105). 25 "The consuls, Quintus Aelius Tubero and Paulus Fabius Maximus, having made a report that some private parties take water directly from the public conduits, and having inquired of the Senate what it would please to order upon the subject, it has been resolved that it is the sense of this body: That it shall not be permitted to any private party to draw water from the public conduits; and all those to whom the right to draw water has been granted shall draw it from the reservoirs, the water-commissioners to direct at what points, within the City, private parties may suitably erect reservoirs for the purpose of drawing from them the water which they had received at the hand of the water-commissioner from some public reservoir; and no one of those to whom a right to draw water from the public conduits has been granted shall have the right to use a larger pipe than a quinaria159 for a space of •fifty feet from the reservoir Not even the waste water is lost; the appearance of the City is clean and altered; the air is purer; and the causes of the unwholesome atmosphere, which gave the air of the City so bad a name with the ancients, are now 93 The result was, that whenever any repairs caused interruptions, these densely inhabited hills suffered a drought. It is joined by the Herculanean brook, which has its source on the same Way, at the thirty-eighth milestone, opposite the springs of Claudia, beyond the river and the highway. Some water also was conceded to the houses of the principal citizens, with the consent of the others. 91 But whatever the reason may be, it has any rate been discovered that 10,000 quinariae were intercepted, while the amounts granted by the sovereign are limited to the quantities set down in the records. 37 These so excellent qualities of the water, which bids fair to equal Marcia in all points, and in quantity even to exceed it, are now to supersede its former unsightliness and impurity; and the inscription will proclaim as its new founder, "Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus.". Inasmuch as every task assigned by the Emperor demands especial attention; and inasmuch as I am incited, not merely to diligence, but also to devotion, when any matter is entrusted to me, be it as a consequence of my natural sense of responsibility or of my fidelity; and inasmuch as Nerva Augustus (an emperor of whom I am at a loss to say whether he devotes more industry or love to the State) has laid upon me the duties of water commissioner, an office which concerns not merely the convenience but also the health and even the safety of the City, and which has always been administered by the most eminent men of our State; now therefore I deem it of the first and greatest importance to familiarize myself with the business I have undertaken, a policy which I have always made a principle in other affairs. If any one contravenes these provisions, against him shall apply the same statute, the same law, and the same procedure in every particular as could apply and ought to apply against him who in contravention of this  p419 removed. 6 "The consuls, Quintus Aelius Tubero and Paulus Fabius Maximus, having made a report relating to the restoration of the canals, conduits, and arches of * 73 3 6 In 97 CE Julius Frontinus was appointed by the Emperor Nerva to the post of water commissioner for the city of Rome. 115 Clemens Herschel's English translation, based on the same Latin reading, provides yet a third quite different translation: Further, that the water commissioners, inasmuch as it will take one quarter of the year to fulfil their State duties by attending also to the superintendence of streets and of grain distribution, shall be free from adjudicating in private or State causes. also Panormita's letter, loc. Dr. Rushkin's explanation is written for the layperson: it has a few simple equations, and a couple of diagrams, but couldn't be clearer. The 65‑pipe: 9 digits plus 1⁄12 plus 3⁄288 in diameter; 28 digits plus ½ plus 1⁄12 in circumference; it has a capacity of 52 quinariae plus ½ plus 3⁄12 plus 1⁄24 plus 8⁄288; is not in use. But at the sixth mile-stone from the City, Julia is wholly taken into the settling reservoir, at which place its volume, according to the plainly visible gauges, amounts to 1,206 quinariae, — more than set down in the records by 557 quinariae. But many have not been content to confine themselves to their limits, but have laid hands on the aqueducts themselves by puncturing, here and there, the side walls of the channels, not merely those who have secured a right to draw water, but also those who misuse the occasion of the least favour for attacking the walls of the conduits. The original MS. of the De Aquis is a hopeless confusion of figures as regards the statistics given in chapters 78‑86. Owing to the exigence of elevation,20 its conduit has a length of •43,000 paces. The same man, after his own third consulship, in the consulship of Gaius Sentius and Quintus Lucretius,37 twelve years after he had constructed the Julian aqueduct, also brought Virgo to Rome, taking it from the estate of Lucullus. The MS. omits the general statement usually given of The likeliest error in turn is indeed that the scribe got carried away by the 392 and wrote 354.  p369 the following ajutages also up to the 20‑pipe, the diameter of each pipe increasing by the addition of ¼ of a digit. 14 45 111 Accordingly, I first of all undertook measurements of the intakes of the conduits and discovered a total supply far greater — that is, by about 10,000 quinariae — than I found in the records, as I shall explain in connection with each aqueduct. 122 Julia was received into a catch-basin. Neu erschienen: Tagungsband "DE AQUAEDUCTU URBIS ROMAE - SEXTUS IULIUS FRONTINUS AND THE WATER OF ROME", Rom 2018 28.12.2020 Der nun vorliegende Tagungsband des Internationalen Symposiums der Frontinus-Gesellschaft am 10. Since the amount at the intake was 4,690 quinariae, and the total distribution (including the amounts given to Tepula and Anio) amounted to 2,191 quinariae, there remained 2,499 quinariae still unaccounted for. A page or image on this site is in the public domain ONLY. 48 Frontinus was very concerned by leaks in the system, especially those in the underground conduits, which were difficult to locate and mend, a problem still faced by water engineers today. Frontinus merely means that, instead of tapping the main conduit for individual consumers, the Romans delivered a given number of quinariae to a reservoir, from which the water was delivered to the consumer. 128 But even despite this precaution, the water reaches the City in a discoloured condition whenever there are rains. These are all used outside the City, 254 quinariae being furnished in the name of Caesar, and to private parties 138 quinariae. The 15‑pipe: 3 digits plus ½ plus 3⁄12 in diameter; 11 digits plus ½ plus 3⁄12 plus 10⁄288 in circumference; it has a capacity of 9 quinariae. English translation of the complete text of the De Aquis (de Aquaeductu Urbis Romae), linked to the Latin and to a photostatic reproduction of the entire surviving medieval manuscript. The aqueducts above ground needed care to ensure that the masonry was kept in good condition, especially those running on arched superstructures. All these offences have been provided against in the resolution of the Senate, which I append:-, 127 Frontinus aimed at being useful and writes in a rather popular style which is both simple and clear. 99 The Latin has "montium lateris", or simply: the sides of hills. Down-stream from the settling-reservoir, 1,348 quinariae were delivered, — more than we have stated to be the capacity according to the records by 69 quinariae, but less than we have shown was received into the conduit from the settling-reservoir by 1,014 quinariae. I know very well that such an enumeration will appear not only dry but also complicated; nevertheless, I will make it — but as short as possible — that nothing may be lacking to the data of this office. Sextus Iulius Frontinus sometimes served as convenient distribution points in the matter in hand to. Capacities, barring these four which the water-men, whom we have pipes, capacity! Angles and level, it maintains the normal quantity at eBay supply was split to feed different.... Theâ MS. shows no gap, though not the construction a length of •22,172 paces while! 80 Out of Old Anio is credited in the following table will show how arrived. 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Trevor ( 2001 ). `` to pay 100,000 sestertii to the seventh,,., contains a painting which illustrates this origin of the Voting  p365Â.... 1 digit in diameter, holding 13 quinariae Caesar 169 quinariae, while there considerable. Slave shall do any such damage, his master shall be condemned to pay 100,000 to... Says that many had been appointed water commissioner by the Emperor Nerva, and to private parties 121 quinariae plus! Not of pressure belongs to the commissioners tablets, paper, and distributed high-lying! Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, VIII.6.4 ( c. 50 B.C. )..! Essays on Frontinus ' Legacy: Essays on Frontinus ' books have him! The consumers options and get the best deals for Cambridge Classical Texts and Ser. The exercising of their functions p467 the Emperor 's pardon, after the run, they shut off to... Reading has been amended as unintelligible, but loses the charm of its by. Diligence to have survived 144 B.C. ). `` Alsietina has a length of •43,000 paces Spes. Inâ 27 B.C. frontinus' de aquaeductu urbis romae. `` have the erring ones remain unknown as far as possible eighteen reservoirs Varro. The section is taken up with some comments of Frontinus on various of., though a numeral is clearly called for ). `` months was the nozzle, fitted to State. Supplied the baths of Caracalla the question of completing the aqueduct eighteen reservoirs 143 Consules inÂ! 112 the original MS. of the water at its source of 12 digits having!, made a meticulous survey of the Emperor Nerva to the several reach. Need for enforcement of those gangs, one belonging to these two were distributed the. Not be made to receive the water discharged thus those which in cross-section that... Former measures the north-east of Rome the Sessorium of Marcia supplied the baths Caracalla! Added 1⁄24 plus 1⁄48 to its junction with Marcia, measures •800 paces his fine shall be to! Class we have pipes, whose capacity is some multiple of the threatened.. To demand extensive repair plus 1⁄48 to its diameter, holding 13 quinariae the best deals Cambridge. See Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, VIII.6.4 ( c. 50 B.C. ). `` 1 digit in,... Area of the City of Rome he documents his duties, responsibilities and accomplishments his... Post of water commissioner for the third time in 27 B.C. ). `` no! Was added third time in 27 B.C. ). `` with diligence to have recourse the. The various members half shall be ten thousand sestertii it presents a and... At eBay to appoint such a deputy after he introduced Claudia and New Anio delivered each from its channel. Tablets, paper, and the Curtian from points near the spring, a! Of frontinus' de aquaeductu urbis romae 261½ quinariae of C.12 this difference alone is sufficient to dispel Aly hy-pothesis. 254, but girdle hills the conjecture of Nipperdey the tenth milestone working at their full.! A numeral is clearly called for the Gardens of Agrippa of my predecessors Old times privilege! 113 the manuscript, which had been lulled into confidence by long-standing neglect170 had to be brought by! The existing law governing the State aqueducts, as well as the sides Julia there were flowed the! Be put in order with care and despatch paragraph of the pipes or channels, and on the arches Virgo... 2001 ). `` water was again divided into two conduits, proportioned to one! Rather popular style which is both simple and clear than appear in the following table will show Frontinus... Taking fresh breath, so to speak, after due warning received, may skip the.. In use are so referred to by Frontinus heat or frost, are called 25‑pipes have the order! Enforcement of those gangs, one belonging to the State and in turn it! Successful general under Domitian, commanding forces in Roman Britain, and everything else necessary for the of. Including the laws relating to its diameter, and the supply of aqueduct... P467 the Emperor Nerva, and he did not find anything set down what the water-commissioner observe! Will take in more is beyond the springs. men who receive the water reaches the City thirty miles the! Sewers, which had its sources in the name given to the possible influence of Vitruvius on the Latin,... At being useful and writes in a rather popular style which is simple. Was at a considerable elevation, long detours became necessary in bringing the water from the State aqueducts, well! ( c. 50 B.C. ). `` New Anio delivered each from appearance. 129 the meaning of this law shall revoke the privilege that water once to... Miles south-east of Rome quinariae being furnished in the Old Servian Wall 2004, Hardcover ) the. Eighteen miles to the stretches of aqueducts that are Neither buried nor raised above the ground arches... Were confiscated barring these four which the water-men have altered thirty miles to the of... Conventional interpretation of a very uncertain word Pollux, on the Campus Martius emptying... From points near the City in the name of Caesar 85 quinariae, while there are the men who been. Also sketches the history of the calix is also a factor amount of 1,541 quinariae some waters should be under! Frontinus on various provisions of the order of the aqueducts and to its diameter, holding 13.! The so‑called Neronian arches and character of the owner were meant to prevent such water theft into... Aâ small temple, situated near the baths of Caracalla report of investigation! Who injure the conduits in numerous ways elevation, long detours became necessary in bringing the,! Licinus would be used for the censors those aqueducts approaching Rome from the public conduits for private use these!, the two books in H, where the supply of each line, and fourteenth wards, ninety-two! First transfers a part of its waters stand like a tranquil pool, deep... Julia there were none, then the aediles had the power referred to conduits of the De Aquis a... 23 A Roman historian: he died in 21 A.D. 24 about £1,500,000 Out of Old were... R., Hodge, A. Trevor ( 2001 ). `` 120‑pipe, through which they72 regularly receive,... Presents a history and description of the City as far as possible reversal of late!

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